Tuberculosis(TB) is a bacterial disease usually caused by an organism known as mycobacterium tuberculosis that mostly affects the lungs. It is spread from individual to individual through the air. It is a treatable and avoidable disease.
When TB is developed, the symptoms a cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. These symptoms are insignificant for many months. Moreover, around one-third of the world’s population has latent TB, that means people are diseased by TB bacteria but are not ill with the disease and cannot spread the disease.
It is one of top 10 causes of death worldwide. It arises in every part of the world. According to WHO, 10.4 million people fell ill with TB and 1.8 million people died due to this disease. 60% of the total deaths are from the six countries, where India is leading the count followed by Indonesia, China, Nigeria, Pakistan, and South Africa. Moreover, WHO estimated 1 million children became ill with TB and 170,000 children died due to TB, apart from children with HIV.
India is the country with the maximum burden of TB. In India, WHO estimated 2.2 million cases of TB.
According to WHO, 40% of the Indian population is infected with Tuberculosis bacteria.
Treatment and Prevention
Tuberculosis treatment generally takes a few weeks. Medications are the keystone of tuberculosis treatment. Besides, people suffering from this disease should avoid crowds till they are not cured. Moreover, it is very important to complete the course of therapy and take the medications exactly as prescribed by the doctor. Discontinuing treatment too soon or missing doses allows the alive bacteria to become resistant.
Directly observed therapy (DOT) is recommended to the people suffering from Tuberculosis. In DOT a healthcare professional spends time with the patient and oversees every medical dose
Advice for patients
Hidoc recommends a few steps to prevent the spread of TB.
Ventilate the Room
Tuberculosis germs are spread easily in the small room or space where air doesn’t move. It is recommended to keep the windows open or use the fan to blow the indoor air outside.
Use the tissue or handkerchief to cover the mouth always while laughing, coughing or sneezing so that the bacteria is not spread. Wearing a mask may help reduce the risk of transmission.
Avoid going to work or school during the first few weeks of treatment for tuberculosis. Moreover, don’t sleep with other people in the same room to stop the transmission of tuberculosis.
Bacille Chalmette-Guerin or BCG is a vaccine used in the countries where Tuberculosis is more common.
According to WHO, people diagnosed with tuberculosis can contaminate 10-15 people through close contact every year if they do not take Hidoc recommended precautions.